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花生长过程
[来源:http://www.qdmiaomu.com.cn/] [作者:567zx] [日期:19-08-15] [浏览次数:]

花生长过程
Peanut growth process
花形成的时期(或称为花芽的分化时期)和方式是由植物内在的遗传基因所决定的。植物只有完成营养生长,并在某种外界环境下,达到一定的生殖阶段时,才能成花。植物生长到一定阶段后能否成花,在大多数情况下,是由光照和温度等环境因素所决定,许多植物对昼夜相对长度的变化(光周期)和温度有一定的需要范围,在这两种因素的综合影响下,进入生殖时期(见光周期现象)。
The period of flower formation (or differentiation of flower buds) and the way in which flowers are formed are determined by the inherent hereditary genes of plants. Plants can flower only when they complete vegetative growth and reach a certain reproductive stage in some external environment. In most cases, whether a plant can flower after a certain stage of growth is determined by environmental factors such as light and temperature. Many plants need a certain range of changes in relative length (photoperiod) and temperature between day and night. Under the combined influence of these two factors, they enter the reproductive period (see photoperiod phenomenon).
在顶端诱发成花的时候,原来营养茎端的分生组织细胞发生很大的变化。这时细胞质明显的变得浓厚,原来具有的大液泡,分散成为许多小液泡。其他细胞器,特别是线粒体数目大为增加,细胞的呼吸作用增强。以后,小液泡又明显增多变大,并伴有细胞核的增大,核仁的体积也显著增加。在这种增大的细胞核内,分散的染色体和浓缩的染色质的比率,在诱发的分生组织要比营养茎端上的高。
When flowering was induced at the apex, the meristematic cells of the original vegetative stem apex changed greatly. At this time, the cytoplasm became thicker, and the large vacuoles were dispersed into many small vacuoles. The number of other organelles, especially mitochondria, increased greatly, and the respiratory function of cells increased. After that, the small vacuoles increased significantly, accompanied by the enlargement of nuclei and the volume of nucleoli. In this enlarged nucleus, the ratio of dispersed chromosomes to concentrated chromatin is higher in the induced meristem than in the vegetative stem tip.
这时顶端分生组织的细胞内,RNA合成加速,随着新的核糖体的形成,总蛋白质数量也增加。另外,早期随着成花因素的刺激,顶端分生组织的细胞分裂十分旺盛,有丝分裂指数骤然升高。
At this time, RNA synthesis accelerates in the cells of apical meristem, and the total number of proteins increases with the formation of new ribosomes. In addition, with the stimulation of flowering factors in the early stage, the cell division of apical meristem was very vigorous, and the mitotic index increased sharply.

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