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园林绿化中彩色植物的应用
[来源:http://www.qdmiaomu.com.cn/] [作者:aoutmy] [日期:17-04-19] [浏览次数:]

随着城镇建设和城乡园林绿化事业的快速发展,人们对其赖以生存的环境质量要求越来越高,无论在住宅小区、公共绿地,还是在湖滨、河畔,在普通绿化的基础上,克服简单的栽花种草,在绿化、美化、香化的同时,还要进一步实施绿化环境的彩化。因而,随着彩化色植物的广泛应用,彩叶植物的种类和数量,远不能满足目前城乡园林绿化的需求。   彩色植物的开发与应用是丰富彩色观赏植物种类和资源的重要途径之一,发展彩叶植物(包括乔木、低矮灌木和多年生草本植物)是解决单纯种植草坪植物,增加彩色观叶、观花、观果等地面覆盖植物种类的一项重要举措。   日本、荷兰、美国、加拿大等西方发达国家,更加重视园林植物的开发和利用,尤其是对彩色植物的开发应用更值得借鉴。美国彩色植物和地被植物的种类达5000多种,而我国的彩色植物和地被植物总数量不足2000种。为丰富我国彩色植物的品种资源,解决和补充城乡园林绿化的公共绿地中彩色植物的种类不足,提高观赏效果,地被植物的引进可解决冬季单纯种植草坪叶片枯黄的现象,以进一步推动和美化人们的生存环境,有益于人体身体健康,对促进两个文明建设有着重大的意义。   在城乡园林绿化中常用的彩色植物种类及应用如下:   深秋彩色树种:银杏、金边马褂木、大叶榉、鸡爪槭、紫叶挪威槭、乌桕、枫香、金叶刺槐、无患子、兰果树、美国红栌、黄莲木等。常用于道路、公园、庭院和公共绿地,亦作为深秋彩色点缀树种。   中夏彩色观赏花灌木:花叶柳、金光榆、金叶皂荚、紫叶皂荚、花叶复叶槭、粉叶复叶槭、花叶枸骨、花叶胡颓子、花叶锦带、花叶扶芳藤、金边红瑞木、金叶龟甲冬青等。此类植物的幼叶多位金黄色、银白色和紫色,在仲夏季节仍具较好的观赏效果。   早春彩色植物:红叶石楠、金森女贞、金叶连翘、银叶日本女贞、花叶女贞、紫叶加拿大紫荆、花叶火棘、金叶大花六道木、花叶络石、紫叶李、紫叶桃、紫叶矮樱、金叶接骨木、金叶女贞、紫叶小檗、金叶小檗等。这类植物常在城乡园林绿化中作为色块植物的主要材料。   彩色观赏地被植物:花叶玉簪、金边玉簪、银叶玉簪、矮金娃娃萱草、金边菖蒲、银边菖蒲、金叶苔草、花叶常青藤、斑叶大吴风草、紫叶杂浆草、金叶亮绿忍冬、金叶莸、金叶过路黄、银纹沿阶草、金叶景天、花叶蔓长春花、金山绣线菊、兰花三七等。适宜用作色块和地被植物。   彩叶湿地及水生植物:花叶水葱、竹节芒草,斑叶芒草、花叶菖蒲、花叶芦竹、玉带草等。此类彩色湿地及水生植物适宜用作河岸、水系及湖畔的水边、溪旁。 Along with the rapid development of urban construction and the cause of the urban and rural landscape, people for its survival environment more and more high quality requirements, no matter in the residential area, public green space, or in a lake, river, on the basis of common greening, overcome simple flowers grow grass, at the same time of greening, landscaping, aromatization, further implement green environmental color. Therefore, with the wide application of color of color plants, species and quantity of colored plants, far cannot satisfy the requirements of urban and rural landscape. The development and application of colored plants is rich color and ornamental plant species resources, one of the important ways to the development of colored plants (including trees, low shrubs and perennial herbs) is to solve pure planting lawn plants, increase the colorful foliage, flowers, fruit and other ground cover plant species is an important step. Japan, the Netherlands, the United States, Canada and other western developed countries, more attention to the development and utilization of garden plant, especially for the development and application of colored plants more worth using for reference. The color of 5000 varieties in plant and cover plant, and the color of plants in China and the total number of less than 2000 kinds of plants. For rich variety resources of colored plants in our country, solve and supplement of urban and rural landscape type of colored plants in the public green space is insufficient, improve the effect of ornamental, the introduction of groundcover plants can solve the phenomenon of winter pure planting lawn leaves withered and yellow, to further promote and beautify the living environment of people, is beneficial to human body health, is of great significance to promote the construction of two civilizations. Commonly used color in the urban and rural afforestation plant species and the application is as follows: late autumn color trees: ginkgo, phnom penh jacket wood, big leaf maple ju, chicken claw, purple leaf maple in Norway, tallow, liquidambar, gold leaf acacia, no child, fruit trees, the red Lu, Huang Lianmu, etc. Commonly used in roads, parks, gardens and public green space, as well as late autumn colour ornament tree species. In summer color ornamental flowering shrubs: Mosaic willow, golden elm, gold leaf acacia, purple leaf acacia, Mosaic compound leaf maple, powder of compound leaf maple leaves, Mosaic Chinese Holly, Mosaic pattern, Mosaic hu jin belt, hua xie fu fang cane, phnom penh cornus alba, gold leaf tortoise shell Holly, etc. Such plants more than the young leaves of gold, silver, and purple, in midsummer season remains good ornamental effect. Early spring color plants: photinia x, dickinson privet, gold leaf forsythia, silver leaf privet, Japan, Mosaic, purple leaf privet Canada Chinese redbud, Mosaic firethorn, gold leaf big six tie, Mosaic winding stone, purple Ye Li, Ye Tao purple, purple leaf dwarf cherry, gold leaf elderberry, gold leaf privet, purple leaf barberry, gold leaf barberry, etc. This kind of plant is often in the urban and rural landscape as the main material of color piece of plant. Color ornamental groundcover plants, Mosaic hostaes h. plantaginea phnom penh, silver leaf, short tetraodon nigroviridis day lilies, phnom penh calamus, silver edge calamus, gold leaf sedge, Mosaic variegated ivy, big Wu Fengcao, purple leaf mixed pulp of grass, gold leaf light green honeysuckle, gold leaf health, gold leaf passing yellow, silver lines along the rank grass, gold leaf stonecrop, Mosaic vinca notoginseng flower, jinshan meadow sweet, orchid, etc. Suitable for color piece and cover plant. Wetland and aquatic plants: colored Mosaic scirpus tabernaemontani, bamboo miscanthus, variegated miscanthus, Mosaic, Mosaic bamboo reed, jade belt grass calamus, etc. This kind of color of wetlands and aquatic plants suitable for the Banks of the river, river and lake water, stream.

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